Polarization also polarisation is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations. Depending on how the string is plucked, the vibrations can be in a vertical direction, horizontal direction, or at any angle perpendicular to the string. In contrast, in longitudinal waves , such as sound waves in a liquid or gas, the displacement of the particles in the oscillation is always in the direction of propagation, so these waves do not exhibit polarization. Transverse waves that exhibit polarization include electromagnetic waves such as light and radio waves , gravitational waves ,  and transverse sound waves shear waves in solids. An electromagnetic wave such as light consists of a coupled oscillating electric field and magnetic field which are always perpendicular to each other; by convention, the "polarization" of electromagnetic waves refers to the direction of the electric field.
Water waves and sound waves are examples of mechanical waves. Light waves are not considered mechanical waves because they don't involve the motion of matter. Most of the mathematics and properties of mechanical waves apply to light waves. Light waves are different from mechanical waves, however, because they can travel through a vacuum. Light waves are just one type of electromagnetic wave.
You will most probably come across polarisation in everyday life within the realms of photography and the choosing of sunglasses. You may have seen the effect of polarisation on a computer screen - perhaps your teacher has used it for a demo. Polarisation is the orientation of vibration perpendicular to the direction of energy travel. It can be measured with a polarimeter.
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